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你需要掌握的MBA论文写作的六种逻辑写作结构!

2023/9/27 17:44:01  阅读:70 发布者:

编者按:任何一类写作都应遵循一种逻辑结构,长的文章可能在不同部分依据情况使用不同的逻辑结构。本文采用中英文对照方式,分享斯科特·弗朗西斯对常见逻辑结构的介绍。

六种逻辑写作结构  Six Logical Writing Structures

每一篇文章,无论是求职信、新闻文章还是虚构的短篇小说,都有自己的结构。

Every piece of writing, whether it is a cover letter for a job application, a news article, or a fictional short story, has its own structure.

把结构想象成一篇文章的骨架。

Think of structure as the skeleton of a piece of writing.

它是作品最基本的部分,所有这些都连接在一起,形成一个坚实统一的基础,在这个基础上,你——作家和创造者——将会创造出一些独特的东西。

It is the bare bones of the piece, all connected to form a solid, uniform foundation upon which you, the writer and the creator, will build something unique.

例如,人类都有几乎相同的基本骨骼。

Humans, for example, all have nearly identical basic skeletons.

然而,正是骨骼上的一切——肌肉、面部特征、形状、曲线、个性,甚至衣服和配饰——让每个人都独一无二。

However, its everything that goes on top of those skeletons-the muscles, the facial features, the shape, the curves, the personality, and even the clothes and accessories-that makes each human unique.

还记得每年秋天你回到小学的第一天就被分配了五段式短文吗?

Remember being assigned five-paragraph essays on your first day back to grade school every fall?

五段式短文通常会被命名为“我今年夏天做了什么”,这种短文会被要求包含一个引言、由三个支持段落组成的主体内容和一个结论。

Theyd usually be titled "What I Did This Summer," and theyd be assigned to have an introduction, three supporting paragraphs making up the body of the work, and a conclusion.

这种通用格式是六种通用写作结构的基础,它们既可以用于正式的书面交流,也可以用于非正式的书面交流。

This general format is the root of the six common writing structures that can be used for both formal and informal written communication.

范畴式结构

Categorical structure

范畴式结构并行地处理一系列同等重要的主题。

政治演讲,比如竞选演讲,甚至国情咨文,都是范畴化写作的好例子。

你可以在求职申请的求职信中使用类似的结构,在求职信中,你可以描述所有能让你成为该职位理想候选人的特质。

范畴化结构也可以称为直接了当结构——译者注

In a categorical structure, a series of equally important topics are addressed.

A political speech, like a campaign speech or even The State of the Union Address, is a good example of categorical writing.

You might use a similar structure in a cover letter for a job application, in which you describe all of your traits that would make you an ideal candidate for the position.

评估型结构

Evaluative structure

在评估结构中,引入一个问题,然后对该问题写下权衡利与弊的内容。

在写电子邮件时,你可以使用一种评估结构来征求密友的建议。

In an evaluative structure, a problem is introduced, and then pros and cons are weighed.

You might employ an evaluative structure when writing an e-mail to ask a close friend for advice.

序时结构

Chronological structure

当你的焦点更多的是故事的实际讲述而不是最终结果时,采用序时结构。

想想讲笑话。“三个人走进一家酒吧…”设置了一系列事件来传递最后一句妙语。

同样,大多数短篇故事和小说都是按时间顺序写的。

When your focus is more the actual telling of the story than the end result, employ a chronological structure.

Think of joke telling. "Three guys walk into a bar" sets up a sequence of events to deliver that final punch line.

Similarly, most short stories and novels are written chronologically.

比较型结构

Comparative structure

这种结构类似于评估,但它是在手头的情况有更多层次被权衡时使用的。

如果你正在为辩论队写一篇演讲,你可以用一个比较结构来解释为什么你觉得自己的观点比对手的观点更强的各种原因。

或者你可以用比较结构给编辑写一封信,解释你不同意市议会决定提高地方税的所有原因。

This structure is similar to evaluative, but it is used when there are more layers to the situation at hand that is being weighed.

You might use a comparative structure if you were writing a speech for a debate team to explain the various reasons why you feel your point is stronger than your opponents.

Or you might use a comparative structure to write a letter to the editor explaining all the reasons you disagree with the city councils decision to raise local taxes.

顺序式结构

Sequential structure

这种结构类似于序时式,但是在描述一个逐步的过程时,通常与操作方法一起使用。

如果你要写如何制作你著名的巧克力夹心蛋糕,或者如何享用你在乡下发现的丰盛的早餐,你会按顺序写,用“第一”、“下一步”、“然后”和“最后”这样的词来阐明你的说明。

This structure is similar to Chronological, but is normally employed with a how-to voice when a step-by-step process is being described.

If you were going to write about how to make your famous chocolate layer cake, or how to get to a great bed-and-breakfast you discovered out in the country, you would write sequentially, using words like, "First," "Next," "Then," and "Finally" to clarify your instructions.

因果结构

Causal structure

这种结构乍看起来可能类似于比较结构,但它的不同之处在于它不涉及权衡利弊的选项。

相反,它按顺序讨论某个特定主题或问题的原因和影响。

如果你正在写一篇关于事情是如何发生的文章,比如造成空气污染的因素,你可以使用这个结构。

或者你可以在一封解释你为什么决定辞职的信中使用这种技巧。

This structure might at first glance seem similar to Comparative structures, but it differs in that it does not involve weighing options against one another.

Instead, it discusses the causes and then the effects regarding a particular topic or issue in that order.

You might use this structure if you were writing an article on how something has come about, such as the contributing factors to air pollution.

Or you might employ this technique in a letter explaining why you have decided to resign from your job.

现在你应该知道了不同种类的结构,开始关注你周围所有作品的骨架。

下次你在医生候诊室翻看杂志、浏览你订阅的每周电子通讯甚至阅读朋友的来信时,花些时间用x光透视一下这些文字,看看它们是如何联系在一起的。

优秀的作家通过不断意识到自己在读什么来磨练自己的技能。

Now that you know about the different kinds of structures, start paying attention to the skeletons of all the pieces of writing around you.

The next time you flip through a magazine in a doctors waiting room, or skim through a weekly e-newsletter that you subscribe to, or even read a letter from a friend, take some time to x-ray the writing and see how its bare bones are connected.

Good writers hone their skills by being constantly aware of what theyre reading.

Scott FrancisSix Logical Writing StructuresMarch 25, 2009

https://www.writersdigest.com/writing-articles/by-writing-goal/improve-my-writing/six-logical-writing-structures

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